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Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: A small step forward.

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journal contribution
posted on 11.12.2020, 09:48 by Joseph Donovan, Fiona V Cresswell, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, David R Boulware, Guy E Thwaites, Nathan C Bahr, Tuberculous Meningitis International Research Consortium
The delayed diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to poor outcomes, yet the current diagnostic methods for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are inadequate. The first comparative study of the new GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for TBM diagnosis suggested increased sensitivity of Xpert Ultra. Two subsequent studies have shown Xpert Ultra has improved sensitivity, but has insufficient negative predictive value to exclude TBM. Collecting and processing large volumes of CSF for mycobacterial testing are important for optimal diagnostic test performance. But clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters remain essential for TBM diagnosis and empiric therapy is often needed. We therefore caution against the use of Xpert Ultra as a single diagnostic test for TBM; it cannot be used to "rule out" TBM.

Funding

Crick (Grant ID: 10218, Grant title: Wilkinson, R FC001218)

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