annurev-biochem-052621-091205 (1).pdf (1.48 MB)
Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and the transcriptional response to UV-induced DNA damage.
journal contributionposted on 2023-06-22, 13:22 authored by Nicolás Nieto Moreno, Anouk M Olthof, Jesper Q Svejstrup
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and other genotoxic stresses induce bulky DNA lesions, which threaten genome stability and cell viability. Cells have evolved two main repair pathways to remove such lesions: global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). The modes by which these subpathways recognize DNA lesions are distinct, but they converge onto the same downstream steps for DNA repair. Here, we first summarize the current understanding of these repair mechanisms, specifically focusing on the roles of stalled RNA polymerase II, Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB), CSA and UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA) in TC-NER. We also discuss the intriguing role of protein ubiquitylation in this process. Additionally, we highlight key aspects of the effect of UV irradiation on transcription and describe the role of signaling cascades in orchestrating this response. Finally, we describe the pathogenic mechanisms underlying xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome, the two main diseases linked to mutations in NER factors. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 92 is June 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.