The role of the B-allele of the influenza A virus segment 8 in setting mammalian host range and pathogenicity
journal contributionposted on 2020-10-02, 15:21 authored by Matthew L Turnbull, Helen M Wise, Marlynne Q Nicol, Nikki Smith, Rebecca L Dunfee, Philippa M Beard, Brett W Jagger, Yvonne Ligertwood, Gareth R Hardisty, Haixia Xiao, Donald J Benton, Alice M Coburn, Joao A Paulo, Steven P Gygi, John W McCauley, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Samantha J Lycett, Michael P Weekes, Bernadette M Dutia, Paul Digard
UNLABELLED: Two alleles of segment 8 (NS) circulate in nonchiropteran influenza A viruses. The A allele is found in avian and mammalian viruses, but the B allele is viewed as being almost exclusively found in avian viruses. This might reflect the fact that one or both of its encoded proteins (NS1 and NEP) are maladapted for replication in mammalian hosts. To test this, a number of clade A and B avian virus-derived NS segments were introduced into human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. In no case was the peak virus titer substantially reduced following infection of various mammalian cell types. Exemplar reassortant viruses also replicated to similar titers in mice, although mice infected with viruses with the avian virus-derived segment 8s had reduced weight loss compared to that achieved in mice infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) parent. In vitro, the viruses coped similarly with type I interferons. Temporal proteomics analysis of cellular responses to infection showed that the avian virus-derived NS segments provoked lower levels of expression of interferon-stimulated genes in cells than wild type-derived NS segments. Thus, neither the A nor the B allele of avian virus-derived NS segments necessarily attenuates virus replication in a mammalian host, although the alleles can attenuate disease. Phylogenetic analyses identified 32 independent incursions of an avian virus-derived A allele into mammals, whereas 6 introductions of a B allele were identified. However, A-allele isolates from birds outnumbered B-allele isolates, and the relative rates of Aves-to-Mammalia transmission were not significantly different. We conclude that while the introduction of an avian virus segment 8 into mammals is a relatively rare event, the dogma of the B allele being especially restricted is misleading, with implications in the assessment of the pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE: Influenza A virus (IAV) can adapt to poultry and mammalian species, inflicting a great socioeconomic burden on farming and health care sectors. Host adaptation likely involves multiple viral factors. Here, we investigated the role of IAV segment 8. Segment 8 has evolved into two distinct clades: the A and B alleles. The B-allele genes have previously been suggested to be restricted to avian virus species. We introduced a selection of avian virus A- and B-allele segment 8s into human H1N1 and H3N2 virus backgrounds and found that these reassortant viruses were fully competent in mammalian host systems. We also analyzed the currently available public data on the segment 8 gene distribution and found surprisingly little evidence for specific avian host restriction of the B-clade segment. We conclude that B-allele segment 8 genes are, in fact, capable of supporting infection in mammals and that they should be considered during the assessment of the pandemic risk of zoonotic influenza A viruses.
A549 CellsAllelesAnimalsBirdsCell LineCell Line, TumorDogsHEK293 CellsHost SpecificityHumansInfluenza A Virus, H1N1 SubtypeInfluenza A Virus, H3N2 SubtypeInfluenza in BirdsInfluenza, HumanMadin Darby Canine Kidney CellsMammalsMiceMice, Inbred BALB COrthomyxoviridae InfectionsPhylogenyReassortant VirusesViral ProteinsVirulenceVirus ReplicationMcCauley FC001030Gamblin FC001078WICVirology06 Biological Sciences07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences11 Medical and Health Sciences