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Real-time single-molecule imaging of CaMKII-calmodulin interactions.

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-04-11, 10:31 authored by Shahid Khan, Justin E Molloy, Henry Puhl, Howard Schulman, Steven S Vogel
The binding of calcium-calmodulin (CAM) to calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) initiates an ATP-driven cascade that triggers CaMKII autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation in turn increases the CaMKII affinity for CAM. Here, we studied the ATP dependence of CAM association with the actin-binding CaMKIIβ isoform using single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Rhodamine-CAM associations/dissociations to surface-immobilized Venus-CaMKIIβ were resolved with 0.5s resolution from video records, batch-processed with a custom algorithm. CAM occupancy was determined simultaneously with spot-photobleaching measurement of CaMKII holoenzyme stoichiometry. We show the ATP-dependent increase of the CAM association requires dimer formation for both the α and β isoforms. The study of mutant β holoenzymes revealed the ATP-dependent increase in CAM affinity results in two distinct states. The phosphorylation-defective (T287.306-307A) holoenzyme resides only in the low-affinity state. CAM association is further reduced in the T287A holoenzyme relative to T287.306-307A. In the absence of ATP, the affinity of CAM for the T287.306-307A mutant and the wild-type monomer are comparable. The affinity of the ATP-binding impaired (K43R) mutant is even weaker. In ATP, the K43R holoenzyme resides in the low-affinity state. The phosphomimetic mutant (T287D) resides only in a 1000-fold higher affinity state, with mean CAM occupancy of more than half of the 14-mer holoenzyme stoichiometry in picomolar CAM. ATP promotes T287D holoenzyme disassembly but does not elevate CAM occupancy. Single Poisson distributions characterized the ATP-dependent CAM occupancy of mutant holoenzymes. In contrast, the CAM occupancy of the wild-type population had a two-state distribution with both low and high-affinity states represented. The low-affinity state was the dominant state, a result different from published in vitro assays. Differences in assay conditions can alter the balance between activating and inhibitory auto-phosphorylation. Bound ATP could be sufficient for CaMKII structural function, while antagonistic auto-phosphorylations may tune CaMKII kinase-regulated action-potential frequency decoding in vivo.

Funding

Crick (Grant ID: CC2124, Grant title: Molloy CC2124)

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