Inhibition of miR-99a-5p prevents allergen-driven airway exacerbations without compromising type-2 memory responses in the intestine following helminth infection.
journal contributionposted on 25.06.2021, 08:31 by Lewis Entwistle, Helena Aegerter, Stephanie Czieso, Eleni Amaniti, Riccardo Guidi, Abdul Sesay, Nikolay Nikolov, Probir Chakravaty, Alison Huynh, Jessica Mills, Sean Flanagan, Shannon Hambro, Victor Nunez, Yi Cao, Christine Clarke, Angela Martzall, Laurie Leong, Dennis Wilson, Cary Austin, Mark Wilson
Acute exacerbations (AE) of asthma, remain one of the biggest concerns for patients living with asthma. As such, identifying the causes, the molecular mechanisms involved and new therapeutic interventions to prevent AE is a high priority. Immunity to intestinal helminths involves the reactivation of type-2 immune responses leading to smooth muscle contraction and mucus hypersecretion-physiological processes very similar to acute exacerbations in the airways following allergen exposure. In this study, we employed a murine model of intestinal helminth infection, using Heligmosomoides polygyrus, to identify miRNAs during active expulsion, as a system for the identification of miRNAs that may contribute to AE in the airways. Concomitant with type-2 immunity and expulsion of H. polygyrus, we identified miR-99a-5p, miR-148a-3p and miR-155-5p that were differentially regulated. Systemic inhibition of these miRNAs, alone or in combination, had minimal impact on expulsion of H. polygyrus, but inhibition of miR-99a-5p or miR-155-5p significantly reduced house dust mite (HDM)-driven acute inflammation, modelling human acute exacerbations. Immunological, pathological and transcriptional analysis identified that miR-155-5p or miR-99a-5p contribute significantly to HDM-driven AE and that transient inhibition of these miRNAs may provide relief from allergen-driven AE, without compromising anti-helminth immunity in the gut.