Hallmarks of intestinal stem cells.
journal contributionposted on 22.10.2020, 10:10 authored by Anna Baulies, Nikolaos Angelis, Vivian SW Li
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are highly proliferative cells that fuel the continuous renewal of the intestinal epithelium. Understanding their regulatory mechanisms during tissue homeostasis is key to delineating their roles in development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as bowel cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies of ISCs focused mainly on the position of these cells along the intestinal crypt and their capacity for multipotency. However, evidence increasingly suggests that ISCs also exist in distinct cellular states, which can be an acquired rather than a hardwired intrinsic property. In this Review, we summarise the recent findings into how ISC identity can be defined by proliferation state, signalling crosstalk, epigenetics and metabolism, and propose an update on the hallmarks of ISCs. We further discuss how these properties contribute to intestinal development and the dynamics of injury-induced regeneration.