Bacillus subtilis YtpP and thioredoxin A are new players in the coenzyme-A-mediated defense mechanism against cellular stress.
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-02, 10:29 authored by Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Maria Baczynska, William Dalton, Sew Yeu Peak-Chew, Kipras Undzenas, George Korza, Valeriy Filonenko, Mark Skehel, Peter Setlow, Ivan Gout
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important cellular metabolite that is critical for metabolic processes and the regulation of gene expression. Recent discovery of the antioxidant function of CoA has highlighted its protective role that leads to the formation of a mixed disulfide bond with protein cysteines, which is termed protein CoAlation. To date, more than 2000 CoAlated bacterial and mammalian proteins have been identified in cellular responses to oxidative stress, with the majority being involved in metabolic pathways (60%). Studies have shown that protein CoAlation is a widespread post-translational modification which modulates the activity and conformation of the modified proteins. The induction of protein CoAlation by oxidative stress was found to be rapidly reversed after the removal of oxidizing agents from the medium of cultured cells. In this study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based deCoAlation assay to detect deCoAlation activity from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium lysates. We then used a combination of ELISA-based assay and purification strategies to show that deCoAlation is an enzyme-driven mechanism. Using mass-spectrometry and deCoAlation assays, we identified B. subtilis YtpP (thioredoxin-like protein) and thioredoxin A (TrxA) as enzymes that can remove CoA from different substrates. With mutagenesis studies, we identified YtpP and TrxA catalytic cysteine residues and proposed a possible deCoAlation mechanism for CoAlated methionine sulfoxide reducatse A (MsrA) and peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) proteins, which results in the release of both CoA and the reduced form of MsrA or PRDX5. Overall, this paper reveals the deCoAlation activity of YtpP and TrxA and opens doors to future studies on the CoA-mediated redox regulation of CoAlated proteins under various cellular stress conditions.