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carnaccini-et-al-2023-antigenic-mapping-of-the-hemagglutinin-of-the-h9-subtype-influenza-a-viruses-using-sera-from.pdf (3.68 MB)

Antigenic mapping of the hemagglutinin of the H9 subtype influenza A viruses using sera from Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-11-02, 10:51 authored by Silvia Carnaccini, C Joaquín Cáceres, L Claire Gay, Lucas M Ferreri, Eugene Skepner, David F Burke, Ian H Brown, Ginger Geiger, Adebimpe Obadan, Daniela S Rajao, Nicola S Lewis, Daniel R Perez
Influenza A viruses (FLUAV) of the H9N2 subtype are zoonotic pathogens that cause significant economic damage to the poultry industry. Vaccination to prevent and control H9N2 infections in poultry is widely employed in the Middle East and Asia. We used phylogenetics and antigenic analysis to study the antigenic properties of the H9 hemagglutinin (HA) using sera produced in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica). Consensus HA1 sequences were generated to capture antigenic diversity among isolates. We constructed chimeric H9N2 viruses containing the HA1 of each consensus sequence on a constant isogenic backbone. The resulting viruses were used to generate antisera from quail, a common and significant minor poultry species whose anti-HA response profiles remain poorly defined. Antigenic maps were generated by plotting the cross-hemagglutination inhibition (HI) data from the panel of quail sera against the chimeric constructs and 51 H9 field isolates. The chimeric antigens were divided into four different antigenic profiles (cyan, blue, orange, and red). Site-directed mutagenesis analysis showed nine amino acid positions of antigenic relevance. Substitutions at amino acid positions 149, 150, and 180 (H9 HA numbering) had relatively significant impact on HI activity using quail sera. Substitutions E180A and R131K/E180A led to the most significant antigenic change transitions. This study provides insights into the antigenic profile of H9 FLUAVs, with important implications for understanding antigenic drift and improving vaccine development for use in minor poultry species.IMPORTANCEDetermining the relevant amino acids involved in antigenic drift on the surface protein hemagglutinin (HA) is critical to understand influenza virus evolution and efficient assessment of vaccine strains relative to current circulating strains. We used antigenic cartography to generate an antigenic map of the H9 hemagglutinin (HA) using sera produced in one of the most relevant minor poultry species, Japanese quail. Key antigenic positions were identified and tested to confirm their impact on the antigenic profile. This work provides a better understanding of the antigenic diversity of the H9 HA as it relates to reactivity to quail sera and will facilitate a rational approach for selecting more efficacious vaccines against poultry-origin H9 influenza viruses in minor poultry species.


Crick (Grant ID: CC1114, Grant title: McCauley CC1114)