Advanced models of human skeletal muscle differentiation, development and disease: Three-dimensional cultures, organoids and beyond.
journal contributionposted on 2021-08-17, 08:53 authored by Salma Jalal, Sumitava Dastidar, Francesco Saverio Tedesco
Advanced in vitro models of human skeletal muscle tissue are increasingly needed to model complex developmental dynamics and disease mechanisms not recapitulated in animal models or in conventional monolayer cell cultures. There has been impressive progress towards creating such models by using tissue engineering approaches to recapitulate a range of physical and biochemical components of native human skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we discuss recent studies focussed on developing complex in vitro models of human skeletal muscle beyond monolayer cell cultures, involving skeletal myogenic differentiation from human primary myoblasts or pluripotent stem cells, often in the presence of structural scaffolding support. We conclude with our outlook on the future of advanced skeletal muscle three-dimensional cultures (e.g. organoids and biofabrication) to produce physiologically and clinically relevant platforms for disease modelling and therapy development in musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders.