A paleogenomic reconstruction of the deep population history of the Andes.
journal contributionposted on 2020-10-22, 11:32 authored by Nathan Nakatsuka, Iosif Lazaridis, Chiara Barbieri, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Cosimo Posth, Kelly Harkins-Kinkaid, Matthew Ferry, Éadaoin Harney, Megan Michel, Kristin Stewardson, Jannine Novak-Forst, José M Capriles, Marta Alfonso Durruty, Karina Aranda Álvarez, David Beresford-Jones, Richard Burger, Lauren Cadwallader, Ricardo Fujita, Johny Isla, George Lau, Carlos Lémuz Aguirre, Steven LeBlanc, Sergio Calla Maldonado, Frank Meddens, Pablo G Messineo, Brendan J Culleton, Thomas K Harper, Jeffrey Quilter, Gustavo Politis, Kurt Rademaker, Markus Reindel, Mario Rivera, Lucy Salazar, José R Sandoval, Calogero M Santoro, Nahuel Scheifler, Vivien Standen, Maria Ines Barreto, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto-Cagigao, Guido Valverde, Douglas J Kennett, Alan Cooper, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Bastien Llamas, David Reich, Lars Fehren-Schmitz
There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ∼9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today's genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ∼2,000-500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin. VIDEO ABSTRACT.