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A molecular perspective of mammalian autophagosome biogenesis
journal contributionposted on 2021-08-17, 10:40 authored by Thomas J Mercer, Andrea Gubas, Sharon A Tooze
Autophagy is a highly conserved process and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy occurs at a basal level in all cells, but it can be up-regulated during stress, starvation, or infection. Misregulation of autophagy has been linked to various disorders, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and immune diseases. Here, we discuss the essential proteins acting in the formation of an autophagosome, with a focus on the ULK and VPS34 kinase complexes, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate effector proteins, and the transmembrane autophagy-related protein ATG9. The function and regulation of these and other autophagy-related proteins acting during formation will be addressed, in particular during amino acid starvation.
ATG proteinsATG9ULK1VPS34WIPI2autophagyintracellular traffickingphosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)post-translational modificationsignalingAnimalsAutophagyAutophagy-Related Protein-1 HomologAutophagy-Related ProteinsClass III Phosphatidylinositol 3-KinasesHumansImmune System DiseasesInfectionsNeoplasm ProteinsNeoplasmsNeurodegenerative DiseasesStarvationTooze FC00118703 Chemical Sciences06 Biological Sciences11 Medical and Health SciencesBiochemistry & Molecular Biology