A T cell-myeloid IL-10 axis regulates pathogenic IFN-γ-dependent immunity in a mouse model of type 2-low asthma.
journal contributionposted on 15.01.2020, 16:47 by William J Branchett, Helen Stölting, Robert A Oliver, Simone A Walker, Franz Puttur, Lisa G Gregory, Leona Gabryšová, Mark S Wilson, Anne O'Garra, Clare M Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Although originally defined as a type 2 (T2) immune-mediated condition, non-T2 cytokines, such as IFN-γ and IL-17A, have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis, particularly severe disease. IL-10 regulates T helper (Th) cell phenotypes and can dampen T2 immunity to allergens, but its functions in controlling non-T2 cytokine responses in asthma are unclear. OBJECTIVE: Determine how IL-10 regulates the balance of Th cell responses to inhaled allergen. METHODS: Allergic airway disease (AAD) was induced in wild-type, IL-10 reporter and conditional IL-10 or IL-10 receptor α (IL-10Rα) knockout mice, by repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM). IL-10 and IFN-γ signalling were disrupted using blocking antibodies. RESULTS: Repeated HDM inhalation induced a mixed IL-13/IL-17A response and accumulation of IL-10-producing FoxP3- effector CD4+ T cells in the lungs. Ablation of T cell-derived IL-10 increased the IFN-γ and IL-17A response to HDM, reducing IL-13 levels and airway eosinophilia without affecting IgE or airway hyperresponsiveness. The increased IFN-γ response could be recapitulated by IL-10Rα deletion in CD11c+ myeloid cells or local IL-10Rα blockade. Disruption of the T cell-myeloid IL-10 axis resulted in elevated pulmonary monocyte-derived dendritic cell numbers and increased IFN-γ-dependent expression of CXCR3 ligands by airway macrophages, suggestive of a feedforward loop of Th1 cell recruitment. Augmented IFN-γ responses in the HDM AAD model were accompanied by increased disruption of airway epithelium, which was reversed by therapeutic blockade of IFN-γ. CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 from effector T cells signals to CD11c+ myeloid cells to suppress an atypical and pathogenic IFN-γ response to inhaled HDM.