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The hydrophobic patch directs cyclin B to centrosomes to promote global CDK phosphorylation at mitosis

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journal contribution
posted on 17.04.2020 by Souradeep Basu, Emma L Roberts, Andrew W Jones, Matthew P Swaffer, Ambrosius P Snijders, Paul Nurse
The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the major cell-cycle regulators that phosphorylate hundreds of substrates, controlling the onset of S phase and M phase [1-3]. However, the patterns of substrate phosphorylation increase are not uniform, as different substrates become phosphorylated at different times as cells proceed through the cell cycle [4, 5]. In fission yeast, the correct ordering of CDK substrate phosphorylation can be established by the activity of a single mitotic cyclin-CDK complex [6, 7]. Here, we investigate the substrate-docking region, the hydrophobic patch, on the fission yeast mitotic cyclin Cdc13 as a potential mechanism to correctly order CDK substrate phosphorylation. We show that the hydrophobic patch targets Cdc13 to the yeast centrosome equivalent, the spindle pole body (SPB), and disruption of this motif prevents both centrosomal localization of Cdc13 and the onset of mitosis but does not prevent S phase. CDK phosphorylation in mitosis is compromised for approximately half of all mitotic CDK substrates, with substrates affected generally being those that require the highest levels of CDK activity to become phosphorylated and those that are located at the SPB. Our experiments suggest that the hydrophobic patch of mitotic cyclins contributes to CDK substrate selection by directing the localization of Cdc13-CDK to centrosomes and that this localization of CDK contributes to the CDK substrate phosphorylation necessary to ensure proper entry into mitosis. Finally, we show that mutation of the hydrophobic patch prevents cyclin B1 localization to centrosomes in human cells, suggesting that this mechanism of cyclin-CDK spatial regulation may be conserved across eukaryotes.

Funding

Crick (Grant ID: 10121, Grant title: Nurse FC001121) Wellcome Trust (Grant ID: 214183/Z/18/Z, Grant title: WT 214183/Z/18/Z)

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