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IL-23 drives differentiation of peripheral γδ17 T cells from adult bone marrow-derived precursors

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journal contribution
posted on 15.10.2020 by Pedro H Papotto, Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa, Nina Schmolka, Andrea Iseppon, Sofia Mensurado, Brigitta Stockinger, Julie C Ribot, Bruno Silva-Santos
Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells are thought to develop exclusively in the thymus during fetal/perinatal life, as adult bone marrow precursors fail to generate γδ17 T cells under homeostatic conditions. Here, we employ a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in which hematopoiesis is reset by bone marrow transplantation and demonstrate unequivocally that Vγ4+ γδ17 T cells can develop de novo in draining lymph nodes in response to innate stimuli. In vitro, γδ T cells from IL-17 fate-mapping reporter mice that had never activated the Il17 locus acquire IL-17 expression upon stimulation with IL-1β and IL-23. Furthermore, IL-23R (but not IL-1R1) deficiency severely compromises the induction of γδ17 T cells in EAE, demonstrating the key role of IL-23 in the process. Finally, we show, in a composite model involving transfers of both adult bone marrow and neonatal thymocytes, that induced γδ17 T cells make up a substantial fraction of the total IL-17-producing Vγ4+ T-cell pool upon inflammation, which attests the relevance of this novel pathway of peripheral γδ17 T-cell differentiation.