How the eukaryotic replisome achieves rapid and efficient DNA replication
journal contributionposted on 15.10.2020 by Joseph TP Yeeles, Agnieska Janska, Anne Early, John FX Diffley
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
The eukaryotic replisome is a molecular machine that coordinates the Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) replicative DNA helicase with DNA polymerases α, δ, and ε and other proteins to copy the leading- and lagging-strand templates at rates between 1 and 2 kb min-1. We have now reconstituted this sophisticated machine with purified proteins, beginning with regulated CMG assembly and activation. We show that replisome-associated factors Mrc1 and Csm3/Tof1 are crucial for in vivo rates of replisome progression. Additionally, maximal rates only occur when DNA polymerase ε catalyzes leading-strand synthesis together with its processivity factor PCNA. DNA polymerase δ can support leading-strand synthesis, but at slower rates. DNA polymerase δ is required for lagging-strand synthesis, but surprisingly also plays a role in establishing leading-strand synthesis, before DNA polymerase ε engagement. We propose that switching between these DNA polymerases also contributes to leading-strand synthesis under conditions of replicative stress.