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Epithelial-cell-derived phospholipase A2 group 1B is an endogenous anthelmintic

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posted on 12.08.2020 by Lewis J Entwistle, Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Mariana Silva dos Santos, James I MacRae, Lucy Collinson, Abdul Sesay, Nikolay Nikolov, Amina Metidji, Helena Helmby, David Y Hui, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections has been well studied, but the mechanism of helminth killing prior to expulsion remains unclear. Here we identify epithelial-cell-derived phospholipase A2 group 1B (PLA2g1B) as a host-derived endogenous anthelmintic. PLA2g1B is elevated in resistant mice and is responsible for killing tissue-embedded larvae. Despite comparable activities of other essential type-2-dependent immune mechanisms, Pla2g1b-/- mice failed to expel the intestinal helminths Heligmosomoides polygyrus or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Expression of Pla2g1b by epithelial cells was dependent upon intestinal microbiota, adaptive immunity, and common-gamma chain-dependent signaling. Notably, Pla2g1b was downregulated in susceptible mice and inhibited by IL-4R-signaling in vitro, uncoupling parasite killing from expulsion mechanisms. Resistance was restored in Pla2g1b-/- mice by treating infective H. polygyrus L3 larvae with PLA2g1B, which reduced larval phospholipid abundance. These findings uncover epithelial-cell-derived Pla2g1b as an essential mediator of helminth killing, highlighting a previously overlooked mechanism of anti-helminth immunity.

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