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Concentration-dependent antagonism and culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis

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journal contribution
posted on 13.10.2020 by Neesha Rockwood, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Paolo Denti, Frederick Sirgel, Maia Lesosky, Tawanda Gumbo, Graeme Meintjes, Helen McIlleron, Robert J Wilkinson
Background: There is scant evidence to support target drug exposures for optimal tuberculosis outcomes. We therefore assessed whether pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters could predict 2-month culture conversion. Methods: One hundred patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (65% human immunodeficiency virus coinfected) were intensively sampled to determine rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide plasma concentrations after 7-8 weeks of therapy, and PK parameters determined using nonlinear mixed-effects models. Detailed clinical data and sputum for culture were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 5-6 months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on baseline isolates. Multivariate logistic regression and the assumption-free multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) were used to identify clinical and PK/PD predictors of 2-month culture conversion. Potential PK/PD predictors included 0- to 24-hour area under the curve (AUC0-24), maximum concentration (Cmax), AUC0-24/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and percentage of time that concentrations persisted above the MIC (%TMIC). Results: Twenty-six percent of patients had Cmax of rifampicin <8 mg/L, pyrazinamide <35 mg/L, and isoniazid <3 mg/L. No relationship was found between PK exposures and 2-month culture conversion using multivariate logistic regression after adjusting for MIC. However, MARS identified negative interactions between isoniazid Cmax and rifampicin Cmax/MIC ratio on 2-month culture conversion. If isoniazid Cmax was <4.6 mg/L and rifampicin Cmax/MIC <28, the isoniazid concentration had an antagonistic effect on culture conversion. For patients with isoniazid Cmax >4.6 mg/L, higher isoniazid exposures were associated with improved rates of culture conversion. Conclusions: PK/PD analyses using MARS identified isoniazid Cmax and rifampicin Cmax/MIC thresholds below which there is concentration-dependent antagonism that reduces 2-month sputum culture conversion.